In this section we demistify all photography jargons so that even a layman can understand the techincalities behind photography. We hit off with simple things about cameras and then go deeper and deeper.
Types of Digital Cameras
*Digital Single-Lens Reflex (DSLR)
This camera is named for the reflexing mirror that allows you to frame the image through the lens prior to capturing the image. As light passes through the DSLR camera’s lens, it falls onto a reflexing mirror and then passes through a prism to the viewfinder. The viewfinder image corresponds to the actual image area. When the picture is taken, the mirror reflexes, or moves up and out of the way, allowing the open shutter to expose the digital image sensor, which captures the image. Most features on a DSLR are adjustable, allowing for greater control over the captured image. Most DSLR cameras also allow the use of interchangeable lenses, meaning you can swap lenses of different focal lengths on the same camera body.
This is a lightweight digital camera, aptly named after the two steps required of the photographer to capture an image. Basically, point-and-shoot cameras require pointing the camera and taking the picture without manually adjusting settings such as the aperture, shutter speed, focus, and other settings that professional photographers routinely set on more sophisticated cameras. Of course, some point-and-shoot digital cameras do include adjustable aperture and shutter settings. Point-and-shoot digital cameras are generally light and small, have built-in automatic flash, require no
adjusting of focus, and most often include an LCD display that allows you to view the image through the lens in real time via the digital image sensor. Most manufacturers of point-and-shoot cameras separate the viewfinder from the lens assembly to simplify construction and achieve a compact size. The lens, aperture, and shutter are one assembly, irremovable from the camera itself.
Components of a Camera
1: Lens Types
Although there are many varieties of lenses, common lens types include telephoto, wideangle, zoom, and prime. All of these lenses perform the same basic function: they capture the reflective light from the subject and focus it on the image sensor. However, the way they transmit the light differs.
Note: Although there are several subcategories and hybrids of these lens types, these are the most basic.
All those big lenses that you see on the cameras used for sports photography belong to this category. It is basically used for wildlife and sports photography where the subject is at a large distance. Fashion Photographers use it to shoot fashion parades and some shots where they click models from a distance so that the model doesn’t get conscious and breathe in her natural postures.
A telephoto lens is a lens with a long focal length that magnifies the subject. Telephoto lenses are typically used by sports and nature photographers who shoot their subjects from great distances. Telephoto lenses are also used by photographers who want greater control over limiting the depth of field (the area of an image in focus). The larger aperture settings, combined with the long focal lengths of telephoto lenses, can limit the depth of field to a small area (either the foreground, middle, or background of the image). Small aperture settings, combined with long focal lengths, make objects in the foreground and background seem closer together.
Ever saw a photograph with a wide view and at times showing the curvature of the earth. Those lenses belong to this category.
A wide-angle lens is a lens with a short focal length that takes in a wide view. Wideangle lenses are typically used when the subject is in the extreme foreground and the photographer wants the background in focus as well. Traditionally, the focal length of a wide-angle lens is smaller than the image plane. However, in the digital photography age, the sizes of image sensors vary, and the lens multiplication factors of most DSLRs
increase the focal length. Check the specifications of your camera to ascertain the size of your digital image sensor. If the size of your digital image sensor is 28 mm, you require a lens with a focal length less than 28 mm to achieve a wide-angle view.